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If you are a new Linux user and looking for help in one of the Linux forums, you may be asked this question:

Which office environment do you use?

You have an idea of what an office environment is, but how do you know which one you’re using? I’ll tell you how to find out. First of all, I will show you the command line method as it applies to all types of Linux distributions. I’ll also show you a graphical way to get this information.

Check which desktop environment you are using.

Review of the working environment

You can use the echo command under Linux to display the value of the XDG_CURRENT_DESKTOP variable in the terminal.

Open the terminal and copy this command:

echo $XDG_CURRENT_DESKTOP

For example, this shows that I am using the GNOME Desktop in Ubuntu 20.04:

E-mail protected]:~$ echo $XDG_CURRENT_DESKTOP
ubuntu:GNOME

Although this command quickly tells you which desktop environment is being used, it does not provide any other information.

Knowledge of the version of the desktop environment (also called DE) can be important in some cases. Each new version of the software introduces or removes new features. GNOME 3.36 has a Don’t Disrupt option that allows you to disable all desktop notifications.

Suppose you have read this new request so as not to disrupt the function. You check if you are using GNOME, but you don’t see this option on the GNOME desktop. If you could check the version of the GNOME Desktop installed on your system, this might clarify the situation.

I will show you the commands to check the desktop environment version because you can use them on any Linux with a running desktop environment.

Where did you get versionof the desktop environment?

Unlike searching for the name of the desktop environment, it is not easy to find the version number because there is no default command or environment variable that can provide this information.

One way to get information about the Linux desktop environment is by using a tool like Screenfetch. This command line tool shows the logo of your Linux distribution in ascii format and some basic system information. The desktop version is one of them.

For Ubuntu-based distributions, you can install Screenfetch by enabling the Universe repository and then use this command:

sudo aptch screenfetch installation

For other Linux distributions you can use the package manager of your system to install this program.

After installation, all you need to do is enter a screenshot into the terminal and the desktop environment version should be displayed along with other system information.

Desktop environment Version control Desktop environment Version control

As you can see in the figure above, my system uses GNOME 3.36.1 (mainly GNOME 3.36). You can also see the Linux kernel version and other details here.

Please note that there is no guarantee that Screenfetch will display the version of the desktop environment. I checked the sources, and it contains a lot of if-else code to get version information from many sources and settings in different desktop environments. If it finds nothing in the version, it will only display the name DE.

Using the GUI to test the desktop environment

Nearly all desktop environments provide basic system information in the Settings – Startup section.

The only big problem is that most EDs are different, so I can’t show the exact steps for each of them. I’ll show it to GNOME and let you find it on your desktop.

Therefore, you need to search in the menu settings (press the Windows key and perform the search) :

Application menu settings Search application settings

Below you will find a section about the program. Click on it and you have a desktop environment with the correct version.

Audit of the Ubuntu desktop environment Audit of the Ubuntu desktop environment

As you can see, this shows that my system uses GNOME 3.36.

I hope you find this quick tip useful for beginners. If you have any questions or suggestions, please leave a comment below.

https://i1.wp.com/itsfoss.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/check-desktop-environment.jpg?fit=800%2C450&ssl=1

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Chopped Unacademy

Recently it was reported that India’s largest e-learning platform, Unacademy, was hacked into Bangalore, hackers had access to Unacademy and stole data from over 22 million users.

The popular company Cyber Security, Cyble Inc., reported this massive data breach, and according to security reports, all this stolen data was also offered for sale on the black web.

Security company Cyble reported that 21,909,707 Unacademy data was hacked, and this massive data breach cost $2,000.

The largest e-learning platform Unacademy India, recently funded by Facebook, General Atlantic and Sequoia. In addition, the current market value of the Academy is $500 million.

Data leakage includes username, email addresses, hash passwords, date of login or previous login, and much more.

http://31.220.61.170/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/1588980875_7_Indias-Largest-Online-Education-Platforms-Unacademy-Hacked.png

In addition, even the cyber security company and the BleepingComputer security portal investigated the whole thing, as well as the data the hackers brought in, where they found enterprise-level data.

  • ID
  • Encrypted password
  • Username
  • Postal address
  • Name
  • Last name
  • Login date.
  • Last login
  • the rest of
  • active
  • Is_superuser

An investigation of these two security portals has shown that in addition to the information mentioned above, several employees of Wipro, Infosys, Cognizant, Google, Facebook, Reliance Industries, HDFC, Accenture, ICICI, SBI, Canara Bank, Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank and several other large companies have been compromised.

In such a situation, the network of these companies is exposed to a serious threat to security.

The co-founder and technical director of the Unacademy, Hemesh Singh, acknowledged the data breach and said the students’ information is now secure.

http://31.220.61.170/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/1588980875_81_Indias-Largest-Online-Education-Platforms-Unacademy-Hacked.png

This is what the co-founder and technical director of the Hemesh Singh Academy said: We are following the situation closely and believe that out of the 22 million cases reported, some information has leaked out to 11 million students. This is due to the fact that only about 11 million e-mail user data are available on the Unacademy platform.

Unacademy uses the PBKDF2 algorithm to store data in encrypted form; this is a security mechanism designed to reduce vulnerability to brute force attacks. In addition, Hemesh Singh, co-founder and technical director of the Academy, said the Academy also uses OTP-based connection systems for additional security.

Kyblos recommendations

  • Users must change their passwords immediately.
  • Enable the two-factor authentication security.
  • Use a strong and complex password.
  • Avoid using your company’s e-mail addresses for third party services.
  • Users should also keep a close eye on their financial transactions just to detect suspicious activities.

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Firefox has just released its latest version, which will be available from Tuesday 4 to Tuesday 4 and contains many bug fixes, including three that have been marked as critical.

Version 76.0 also comes with fanfares for the new features added to the Firefox password manager, and the Coronavirus pandemic is now an unknown reason to praise these features:

There is no doubt that in recent weeks you have signed up for new online services, such as streaming movies and shows, exporting orders or delivering products to your home. All of these new accounts require unique and secure passwords that can now be easily generated, managed and protected with Lockwise Firefox.

Lockwise is a combined Firefox password manager for mobile phones and browsers that now warns you about what he thinks has been compromised.

According to Mozilla, Firefox will automatically warn you if it thinks one of the websites you have an account on is affected by a data breach.

It is therefore not surprising that this warning is called a site violation warning and is activated when you changed your password for the last time on the site before the violation took place:

http://31.220.61.170/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Firefox-76.0-released-with-critical-security-patches---update-now.png-pdatenow.png

The vulnerable password warning will also be released for the first time, which none of us should need, but many of us would probably still be able to handle it:

http://31.220.61.170/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/1588996474_264_Firefox-76.0-released-with-critical-security-patches---update-now.png- update-nu.png

This will tell you whether your other passwords match the password you used on the site, which most likely violated the data.

Ideally, we want the warning to appear every time you start your browser if two passwords are the same, so that you are regularly and strongly encouraged to change them both into something new, complicated and unique.

But Firefox is a bit softer, probably the best place to start.

(We’ll assume that if you have a password that you use for many accounts, it’s because you think they’re going to stop, so you’re probably using a short, obvious password – but you don’t have to choose a trivial one if your password manager can easily generate and remember complex passwords).

Of course, if you already have a password manager that satisfies you, or if you have an incredible amount of storage space for c0MPlic4ted sTR!nZ OV unu5$l t3KSt, then of course you won’t be interested in these new features, but you still need an updated version to fix their security.

As mentioned above, three out of eleven safety patches with CVE numbers are considered critical:

  • CELLAR-2020-12387: Unnecessary use during a work stoppage. This is a potentially dangerous accident, suggesting that a sufficiently skilled fraudster could use this error to implement malicious software.
  • CELLAR-2020-12388: Leave the sandbox with badly guarded passes. Escape from the sandbox means that the content of unauthorized websites can be bypassed from the security check, allowing the browser to store data from different websites and suspicious websites cannot communicate with trusted parts of your computer, such as the data stored on your hard drive.
  • CELLAR-2020-12395: Fixed a memory error in Firefox 76 and Firefox ESR 68.8. This is a common Firefox vulnerability trap and includes eight different vulnerabilities found in Mozillan’s routine checks and tests.

Note that the second vulnerability mentioned above is specific to Firefox on Windows, although you should not use it as a reason to delay the update if you have a Mac or Linux/Unix computer.

There’s a separate entry, CVE-2020-12395, highlighted high rather than critical, which relates to the five bugs found in Firefox 75, but not in the 68.7 Extended Support Release (ESR), which reminds us that new features sometimes cause new bugs.

The Tor-browser, based on Firefox ESR, will also get an update, a somewhat confusing change from 9.0.9 to 9.0.10.

(If you are a Tor user, you can check which versions of Firefox your current Tor is based on in the About Tor Browser dialog).

What should I do?

As usual: Go to Help > About Firefox (or about the Tor browser) to see if you know.

Otherwise, the update will be requested and you will be prompted to perform the update – a restart of Firefox will automatically apply the update and restart the new version.

If you are using Linux or xBSD with a version of Firefox provided by your distribution, you should check the update servers of your distribution to find and get all available Firefox fixes.

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As Linux becomes more and more user-friendly, game developers are adding support for Steam. The performance of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) mainly depends on the drivers. Ubuntu uses the Open Source New graphics driver by default, which offers limited support and capabilities compared to Nvidia’s own drivers.

The Nvidia driver is important for Ubuntu users who want to play games. However, if you are a new user, you do not need to install this driver because it works well with open source.

In this tutorial we will learn the different ways to install Nvidia drivers under Ubuntu 20.04 LTS.

Hardware CheckGPU Information

Before installing the Nvidia drivers under Ubuntu, make sure that the Nvidia GPU is installed on your system. There are many commands to get detailed information about Linux hardware.

To confirm, simply execute the following hwinfo command.

$ sudo hwinfo – gfxcard – short

You can check which card is used by the prime-select command:

Sudo prime selection

The lshw command can display information about the equipment and driver of the Nvidia card currently in use.

sudo lshw -c Display | grep NVIDIA

The lspci command is another way to get information about GPU hardware.

sudo lspci -nnk | grep -iA3 vga
or
$ sudo lspci | grep -i -color ‘vga|3d|2d’.

If you have installed the inxi tool, execute the following command.

$ sudo inxi -Gx

Install the Nvidia drivers with the graphical interface.

We will first check how to install the Nvidia driver of the GUI. Call the Software Update Manager from the main menu and click on it to open it.

Click on the Settings & Livepatch button in the pop-up window of the updater, as shown in the figure.

The Software and Updates window will then open as shown below:

At the top of the Software and Updates window you will find a number of options that are displayed, including Ubuntu software, other software, updates, and so on. In this case, click on the Additional drivers button and you will see that the Nvidia -435 driver (proprietary, tested) has been configured as the default driver for the Nvidia card and that some proprietary drivers are listed.

Both Nvidia – 430 (own) and Nvidia – 390 (own) drivers are available for the GeForce GTX 1080 Ti card. Select the first option to install the Nvidia 430 driver.  When finished, click Apply Changes to install the driver.

Then wait until the Internet download is complete and click on the Close button.

Restart the computer for the changes to take effect. Start the next one to restart the computer.

$ sudo shutdown -r now

or

Reboot the ship

Installation of the Nvidia Command Line Driver (CLI)

Then execute the following commands to check the list of available drivers for the Nvidia card in the standard Ubuntu repository.

Ubuntu driver boot

Four Nvidia drivers are available for the GeForce MX130. These include the non-free Nvidia -440 driver (recommended for Ubuntu systems), the non-free Nvidia -435 and -390 distribution drivers and the new open source graphics driver (standard). You can now execute the following commands to install the desired driver.

driver car installation sudo ubuntu driver

$ sudo apt Installation nvidia-driver-390

Once Nvidia Diver is installed, you will need to restart your computer so that Nvidia prime (the technology) can switch from Intel Graphics to the Nvidia graphics card.

$ sudo shutdown -r now

Test with nvidia-smi

The nvidia-smi command line is a utility used to provide monitoring and management functions for any device, i.e. Nvidia Tesla, GRID, Quadro and GeForce from Fermi and other superior architecture families. Open the Terminal application and execute the following command to display the GPU and the process using the Nvidia GPU

$vidia-smi

Nvidia Graphicsdriver configuration

Use the Nvidia Setup command to start the Graphics User Interface (GUI) tool to configure the Nvidia Graphics Driver. This allows you to view all the information on the GPU and even configure multiple external monitors connected to your system. To start the Nvidia window and the server settings, execute the following command.

Shipsnidia parameters

How do I remove my own Nvidiadriver?

In the open forums I found that many users have problems uninstalling and reinstalling Nvidia drivers. Let me tell you about the steps I followed to successfully remove the Nvidia driver and switch to the new driver.

Step one: Run the following commands to uninstall Nvidia’s own driver.

$ sudo dpkg -p $(dpkg -l | grep nvidia-driver | awk ‘{print $2}’)
$ sudo apt autoremove
or $ sudo apt cleange nvidia -*

Step two: Execute these commands to return to the new driver.

$ sudo apt installation xserver-xorg-video-new

You can probably also switch to the new driver directly from the GUI. In the Software and Update application, select the option Additional drivers. Then select the new rich display driver and click on Apply Changes.

Step three: Then restart the system.

$ sudo shutdown -r now

Step four: After rebooting the system, run the following command to confirm that the new rich module is loaded.

$ lsmod | grep new

Conclusion

In this tutorial we have studied two ways to install Nvidia drivers on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS.

In this context, Nvidia Vulkan, which should provide better performance and a more balanced CPU/GPU driver for Linux, is replacing OpenGL.

In recent years, Redhat developers have added extra code to the New Open Source code to make it much better, and we hope to be able to use it in a modern game in the near future.

If you have any questions or comments, please leave your questions.

Reverse RDP attacks

Think of the Reverse RDP attack – where a client system vulnerable to path-bypass vulnerability can be compromised when accessing the server remotely via the Microsoft Remote Desktop protocol?

Although Microsoft determined the vulnerability (CVE-2019-0887) in its July 2019 update on Tuesday, it appeared that researchers were able to work around the patch by simply replacing backslashes with slashes on the front.

Microsoft recognized the unsuitable patch and corrected the error in its February 2020 update earlier this year, which is now traceable as CVE-2020-0655.

In the latest report from The Hacker News, the Check Point investigator said Microsoft solved the problem by adding a separate workaround to Windows, leaving the root of the workaround, the PathCchCanonicalize API, unchanged.

Clearly, the built-in RDP client workaround works well in Windows operating systems, but the patch is not secure enough to protect other third-party RDP clients from the same attack, based on Microsoft’s vulnerability fumigation feature.

We discovered that an attacker can not only bypass a Microsoft patch, but can also bypass any canonization check performed according to Microsoft best practices, says Check Point investigator Eyal Itkin in a report published in Hacker News.

For those who don’t know: Path bypass attacks occur when the program receiving the file does not check it. This allows the attacker to store the file in any selected location on the target system, exposing the content of the files outside the application’s root directory.

A remote computer infected with malware can take control of any client trying to connect. For example, if an IT employee tries to connect to an external company computer that has been infected with malware, the malicious code may also attack the IT employee’s computer, as described by the investigators.

There were gaps last year, and later studies in August showed that they also affected Microsoft’s Hyper-V hardware virtualization platform.

Here is a demonstration video of last year’s original vulnerability:

 

Trackerror incorrectly corrected

According to the investigators, the July patch can be bypassed because of a problem with its PathCchCanonicalize feature, which is used to disinfect file paths and allows an attacker to use client-server clipboard synchronization to reset random files on the client computer.

In other words, if the clipboard is used when connecting to a compromised RDP server, the server can use the shared RDP clipboard to send files to the client computer and execute code remotely.

Although the gate researchers initially confirmed that the engagement was in line with our initial expectations, this seems to be more than it seems at first glance: A patch can easily be bypassed by replacing backslashes (e.g. phylolocution) in paths with straight slashes (e.g. file/k/location), which traditionally serve as path separators in Unix systems.

It seems that PathCchCanonicalize, a feature mentioned in the Windows best practices guide for canonizing the enemy path, has already previously ignored the slash, Itkin said. We verified this behavior by reverse engineering a Microsoft function implementation, discovering that it cuts the path to pieces, only searches and ignores.

Reverse RDP attack

The cyber security company said it found an error in its attempt to investigate the Microsoft Remote Desktop for Mac client, an RDP client that was excluded from its initial analysis last year. It is interesting to note that the macOS RDP client itself is not vulnerable to CVE-2019-0887.

Since the main vulnerability is still unresolved, Check Point warned that the consequences of simply bypassing the main Windows path cleaning feature poses serious risks to many other software that may be affected.

Microsoft has failed to fix the vulnerability in its official API, so all programs written according to Microsoft’s best practices are still vulnerable to attacks such as path crossing, said Omri Herscovici of Check Point. We want developers to be aware of this threat so that they can view their programs and patch them manually.

http://31.220.61.170/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Secure-Apache-with-mod_md-Lets-Encrypt-on-Ubuntu-20.04.gif

How to install Apache on the Ubuntu Linux Server 20.04 LTS

The Apache web server (also known as HTTPD) is one of the most popular web servers for maintaining dynamic and static websites. It is free and open source software released under an Apache 2.0 license. Let’s see how to install Apache on the Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux server.

 

How to install Apache on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

Make sure your system is updated and repaired. To do so, enter the following command apt:
sudo apt update
sudo apt upgrade
Install Apache with apt

Step 1 – Installing the Apache 2 Server

Now that the system has been updated with the latest patches, it is time to install the Apache 2 software. In other words, type the following command and press [Enter]:
sudo apt install apache2
Install Apache on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux

Step 2 – Make sure that the Apache service is started when theversion is loaded.

To enable apache2.service, we use the systemctl command as follows:
sudo systemctl enabled apache2.service
If not enabled, enable it, start:
sudo systemctl enabled apache2.service

Managing the Apache 2 Service on the Ubuntu Cloud Server

Use the following commands to start, stop, restart and then recognise the maintenance status again.

Starting up the Apache2 Server

sudo systemctl start apache2.service

Stopping the Apache2 Server

sudo systemctl stop apache2.service

Rebooting the Apache2 Server

sudo systemctl restart apache2.service

Reboot the Apache2 server for free

sudo systemctl restart apache2.service

Finding the status of the Apache2 server

sudo systemctl apache2.service status

* apache2.service – Apache HTTP Server
Loaded: loaded (/lib/system/apache2.service; enabled; vendor default: enabled)
Active: active (running) since March 2020-05 19:49:41 UTC; 7 minutes ago
Docs: https://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/
Main PID: 1766 (apache2)
Tasks: 54 (limit: 4915)
memory : 6.5MCGroup: /system.slice/apache2.service??1766 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start??1767 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start??1768 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start.

05. May 19:49:41 db-host systemd [1] : Starting the Apache HTTP Server…
05 May 19:49:41 db-host apachectl [1765] : AH00558: Apache2 : Cannot determine the full domain name of the server reliably with 127.0.1.1 Set the ServerName guideline globally to delete this message
May 05 19:49:41 db-host systemd [1] : The Apache HTTP server is running.

* apache2.service – The Apache HTTP Server
Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/apache2.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
Active: active (running) since Tue 2020-05-05 19:49:41 UTC; 7min ago
Docs: https://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/
Main PID: 1766 (apache2)
Tasks: 54 (limit: 4915)
Memory: 6.5M
CGroup: /system.slice/apache2.service
??1766 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
??1767 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
??1768 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
May 05 19:49:41 db-host systemd[1]: Starting The Apache HTTP Server…
May 05 19:49:41 db-host apachectl[1765]: AH00558: apache2: Could not reliably determine the server’s fully qualified domain name, using 127.0.1.1. Set the ‘ServerName’ directive globally to suppress this message
May 05 19:49:41 db-host systemd[1]: Started The Apache HTTP Server.

Step 3 – Open Apache ports 80 and 443 with the UFWfirewall .

Run the following command ufw on TCP ports 80 and 443 for all sudo ufw
accepting comment 80/tcp Apache from
sudo ufw accepting comment 443/tcp HTTPS connections from
Check:
sudo ufw status
sample output :

Status: active

For action
—–
10.105.28.158 22/tcp PERMIT 192.168.2.0/24
80/tcp PERMIT Anywhere # accept Apache
443 /tcp PERMIT Anywhere # accept HTTPS connections
80/tcp (v6) PERMIT Anywhere (v6) # accept Apache
443 /tcp (v6) PERMIT Anywhere (v6) # accept HTTPS connections

For more information, see How to configure a UFW firewall on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS.

Step 4 – Find the IP address of your Ubuntu 20.04 LTSserver

Execute one of the following commands: Host name
-I
ip a
ip a s eth0
My IP Address :

10.105.28.158

You can also use the dig/host command to find your public IPv4/IPv6 address via the CLI:
dig +short myip.opendns.com @resolver1.opendns.com
For more information about a Linux, see How to find my public IP address from the command line on a Linux.

Step 5 – Test your Apache 2 installation on Ubuntu.

At this point you can use the curl command as follows:
curl -I http://10.105.28.158
Example output:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date : Thu, 05 May 2020 20:08:32 GMT
Server : Apache/2.4.41 (Ubuntu)
Last modified : Thu, 05 May 2020 19:49:22 GMT
ETag: 2aaa6-5a4ebf1b4b8bf
Reception area : Bytes
Length of contents: 10918
varieties : Acceptance –
Decoding point content : Text/html

Another option is to start a web browser such as Chrome or Firefox and enter the URL as follows:
http://your-server-ip
http://10.105.28.158
Check and validate your web server.

Basic configuration

Edit /etc/apache2/apache2.conf, execute:
sudo nano /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
Set at least the server name 127.0.0.1 or the real name, such as your compass or server IP address
Server name 10.105.28.9
Save and close the file. Next, edit the /etc/apache2/ports.conf file, which contains the list of ports to be monitored in the Ubuntu box:
sudo nano /etc/apache2/ports.conf
By default, Apache version 2 monitors Apache on Ubuntu Linux TCP ports 80 (HTTP) and 443 (HTTPS). However, there is no need to adjust them. If you manage many sites in Linux containers, we adjust the ports as follows:

##########################################################################
Обычно Вам не нужно менять по умолчанию. Предназначены для заблаговременного использования / пользователей ##
###############################################################################
# Изменить HTTP–порт 80 на 86
Lists 86

# Change HTTPS port 443 to 449

Listen 449

Listen to 449.

########################################################################################
## Typically you don’t have to change the defaults. These are for advance usage/users ##
########################################################################################
# Change HTTP port 80 to 86
Listen 86
# Change HTTPS port 443 to 449

Listen 449

Listen 449

You must customize the virtual host/virtual domain configuration to the port number specified in ports.conf.

Step 6 – Configuring Apache 2 Virtual Hosts

Create a configuration file for your domain as follows:
sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/my-domain-name.conf
Add the following configuration file:

# Replace my domain name with a valid domain name like cyberciti.biz #

ServerAdmin [email protected] here
ServerName my-domain-name here
ServerAlias www.my-domain-name here
DocumentRoot /home/my-domain-name here/html
Directory index.html
ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/my-domain-name.log
CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/my-domain-name.log combined

Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride None
All information is required.

# Replace my-domain-name-here with actual domain name such as cyberciti.biz #

ServerAdmin [email protected]
ServerName my-domain-name-here
ServerAlias www.my-domain-name-here
DocumentRoot /home/my-domain-name-here/html
DirectoryIndex index.html
ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/my-domain-name-here-error.log
CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/my-domain-name-here-access.log combined

Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride None
Require all granted

Create a new Ubuntu user for the website

Type the following custom command
sudo useradd -d /home/my domain-namee-here -m -k /dev/null -s /usr/sbin/nologin usernamehere
True,

  • -d /home/ my last name somewhere: Install the home directory for your new document safe account.
  • -m : Make sure we have set the user’s home directory to -d.
  • -k /dev/null : Avoid creating dot files for the virtual Apache DocumentRoot domain that can reveal sensory information using /dev/null as another skeletal directory.
  • -s /usr/sbin/nologin : Install the login shell for the new account in /usr/sbin/nologin so that a web server user cannot login to our system using ssh or any other method. It’s also a safety feature.
  • Username : The username under which the files are stored in our virtual domain.

Lock the Linux user account, type:
sudo passwd -l username
Create an html folder with the command mkdir:
sudo mkdir -pv /home/my-domain-name.here/html
Create an example html page as follows:
sudo nano /home/my-domain-name/html/index.html

 

 

www.cyberciti.biz

It’s a test page:

  • Ubuntu Linux 20.04 LTS
  • Apache 2.x

[email protected]

 

www.cyberciti.biz

It’s a test page:

  • Ubuntu Linux 20.04 LTS
  • Apache 2.x

[email protected]

Set the permissions with the chown command:
sudo -R chown username:username/here /home/my-domainname
Activate the newly created virtual domain, execute:
sudo a2ensite my-domainname.conf
sudo a2dissite 000-default.conf
Example output :

Including my-domain-name.conf
To activate the new configuration, you will need:
systemctl restart apache2.

Test configuration:
sudo apache2ctl conf configtest
You must receive an OK syntax message and then reboot the Apache server on Ubuntu Linux:
sudo systemctl reboot apache2
Install the A and AAAAAA rules of your domains on the server’s public IPv4/IPv6 address and test them:
http://my-domain-name-here
http://www.cyberciti.biz
Test Apache 2 on Ubuntu 20.04

Conclusion

You have now installed the Apache 2 webserver on Ubuntu Linux 20.04 LTS. You can configure PHP/Python applications or install TLS/SSL certificates to ensure traffic safety. I strongly advise you to read the Apache 2.4 documents here.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Published: Vivek gears

The author is the creator of nixCraft and an experienced system administrator, DevOps engineer and Linux/Unix shell script trainer. Receive the latest tutorials on SysAdmin, Linux/Unix and open source topics via RSS/XML feed or weekly by email.ubuntu 20 install apache,job for apache2.service failed because the control process exited with error code.,install php on apache,apache ubuntu 20,install php 5.6 ubuntu 18.04 digitalocean,ubuntu 20.04 php,ubuntu 20 install lamp,install php 7.1 ubuntu digitalocean

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Android-based smartphones are more affordable than Apple’s iPhone, aren’t they? Not always. In fact, there is a small change in 2020. There are the flagship models for Android that cost over $1,000, while a very powerful iPhone SE is available for as little as $399. Of course, the best iPhone models are also expensive, but they’re no longer in black and white. If you are looking for an affordable smartphone, you can now use iOS or Android.

The problem, of course, is that affordable Android phones from nameless manufacturers are often of questionable quality. Of course, some well-known manufacturers, such as Samsung, also produce cheap models, but these are generally quite neutral and soft. For some reason, it can be difficult to find an Android phone that balances quality with price.

I am pleased to announce that a new name has appeared in smartphones that seek elegance without breaking the bank – TCL. Yes, the company best known in the United States for its affordable TVs produces Android phones under its own brand. Previously, the company produced phones under the names Palm and BlackBerry. Its flagship, the TCL 10 Pro, may soon be available for as little as $450, from the age of 19. Mayday on Amazon! I’m sure you’re wondering if there’s anything good in all this. I’ve been using this new phone and I’m happy to share my thoughts.

When I had it in my hands, I was first beaten by the TCL 10 Pro. The first time he touches your hands, you’ll swear this phone is much more expensive. The massive 6.47-inch FHD+ (1080 x 2340) AMOLED display curves at the edges, which give a very high quality impression, I am pleased to announce that there is enough space on the sides to hold the phone without registering an accidental touch of the display. The display is also really great when watching videos – it even supports HDR 10 for services like Netflix. TCL’s proprietary NXTVISION technology really brings out the colours – your eyes will love this phone.

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In addition to the power button and the volume control on the right side, there is also a special button on the left side with which you can easily see everything – I’ve chosen Google Wizard. As with biometrics, you can select a fingerprint reader below the screen and unlock the face. If the second is faster, the first is definitely safer. I suggest you keep your finger on the scanner to unlock it, although unlocking is a bit slower than with some other smartphones.

This smartphone is powered by the Qualcomm Snapdragon 675 and has 6GB RAM. It comes with 128GB of memory, but you can expand it with a micro SD. As you can imagine, there is no 5G or 802.11ax connection, but for this price, the 4G LTE and 802.11ac are perfectly normal.

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The TCL 10 Pro comes with a very modern Android 10 and has a vanilla surface with minimal swelling. In addition to its own useful TCL applications, the only fixed third-party application is Netflix. I’m happy to say that TCL promises that the device will at least be upgraded to Android 11, so you won’t be stuck at 10 forever.

Thanks to the included 4500 mAh battery, which can be quickly removed with the Quick Charge 3.0 holder, you can use it incredibly long – you get 50% in half an hour. Even experienced users should be able to use the service 24 hours a day between payments. Unfortunately, this brings us to the first compromise of the TCL 10 Pro – no wireless charging. Unfortunately, Qi support is excluded, so charging is only possible via the lower USB-C port. Is that disappointing? A lot, but it’s not the end of the world. Fortunately, it supports at least NFC and Android Pay, an important feature in case of a pandemic.

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Another small negative point is the sound. Although the sound quality and intensity are actually very good, it only has a lower speaker. Unfortunately there are no speakers upstairs, so there is no stereo sound if you don’t connect your headphones. And yes, believe it or not, it has a matching 3.5 mm audio connection! It’s strange that the earphone jack is also on top of the phone, a place I love, but it’s rare these days. When headphones are connected, they also serve as an antenna when you open the FM radio application. Same upstairs? An IR blaster, which makes it possible to use the phone as a remote control for the television at the same time, is a once mundane phenomenon that has recently disappeared.

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However, shots are made where the TCL 10 Pro really shines. There are a total of four lenses on the back – a 64 megapixel main mast, a wide-angle lens, a macro lens and a low-light lens. You also get a double flash and laser focus. The camera application is easy to use and has many settings that make it easy to take great photos. Even the 24-megapixel front camera, which sits in a small notch, has an impressive quality.

Unfortunately, the video is a bit disappointing. Although the camera can shoot at 480p, 720p, 1080p and 4K, it is not possible to shoot at 60 frames per second – the four settings are limited to 30 frames per second. This is very unfortunate, because many content authors prefer 1080p60 as the best viewing area. Don’t get me wrong, the video is still beautiful at 30 frames per second, but I still miss 60. However, it can register an idle speed of 960 FPS, which is quite accurate.

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So I recommend the TCL 10 Pro? For those looking for a cheap premium Android phone, the answer is yes! However, it lacks certain characteristics that some might consider a violation of the agreement, such as the inability to record video at 60 frames per second, the lack of 5G and the lack of wireless Qi charging.

However, if you can do without one, buy a $450 cordless phone that seems twice as expensive as what you’ve spent. It even comes with a nice box at no extra cost! A great camera, a huge battery, a nicely curved screen and the guaranteed update of Android 11 make it a nonsense. TCL has grown strongly and other manufacturers should be very concerned.tcl 10 pro price,tcl 10 pro amazon

Create a better user experience for your new and existing customers to extend the value of their lives

The purchase of goods was temporarily moved to the online world to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 virus. Many companies selling physical goods have seen their online customer base grow at the same rate as their physical stores have closed. Even companies that produce digital goods and are not physically active benefit from a new public need for online entertainment, whether it’s watching movies, playing games together or using applications to communicate with friends and family.

In addition to current users spending more time online, a new demographic group has entered the online marketplace to maintain their share of goods and services online. These customers have become accustomed to physical purchases and banking and must now get used to carrying out transactions by telephone or computer.

Companies are at a crossroads: leaving the customer experience as it is or adapting to help new customers through this transition. Once movement restrictions are over and people are back on the streets, customers who preferred bricks and mortar before the crisis can just as easily disappear from the online environment.

However, retailers who make additional efforts to improve their digital user experience without compromising security will increase their chances of attracting these new customers to

in the long run. Technologies that address user behavior on the network, such as B. behavioral analysis and passive biometrics, help eliminate frictional losses and simplify the customer journey. If there ever comes a time when improved security measures and a better customer experience are essential, this is exactly the time to do it.

How do users develop?

While some sectors, such as events and tourism, have experienced a decline, the overall growth of e-commerce and financial institutions has increased steadily since January.

COVID_All traffic_due_02

In the NuData network, financial companies have found that more existing users have access to their accounts. The table below shows the number of separate accounts consulted each month, with a general increase since the beginning of the year.

KOVID-19 traffic news

Customers want a simpler user interface, but companies also want to protect their accounts and assets from cyber attacks.

To prevent the right users from being blocked during a transaction or money transfer, some companies try to remove security barriers, such as one-time password requests. While this would improve the quality of customer service, it would also increase the risk of fraud.

The COVID scam fills the Excel tables of the bad actors with new combinations of usernames and passwords or Fullz. Once the bad actors have received the data they need, they launch attacks everywhere, including logging in, creating an account, logging out or managing rewards.

Extending the lifespan of users through behavioural and passive biometrics

Behavioural technology makes it possible to identify suspicious activities and recognize users without having to rely on possibly stolen connection data or personal information.

The combination of these two technologies makes it possible to test the user’s behaviour in the environment. Information such as how a person prints, how the device is stored, and hundreds of other data points form an accurate online profile. This real-time evaluation helps you decide whether there is a machine or a person behind the device. And if a person is involved, passive biometrics also determines whether that person is the rightful owner of the account or whether a fraudster is trying to take possession of someone else’s account.

Improving the user experience under Uncertainty

Real-time user evaluation using behavioral and passive biometrics – instead of relying on static usernames and passwords – helps companies validate customers without additional friction loss. This approach to user authentication simplifies and enhances the experience for customers who depend on the Internet for their goods and services. This helps brands to build trust and strengthen relationships with new and existing users.

Download a complete e-book : Buyers go digital, but does it improve your user experience?

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Post Yes, customers go digital during COVID; but will your user experience remain the same? first appeared in NuData Security.

*** This is the syndicated blog Security Bloggers Network of NuData Security, written by Akshai Gopal. The original message can be found at the following address: https://nudatasecurity.com/resources/blog/yes-shoppers-are-going-digital-during-covid-but-is-your-user-experience-keeping-up/.

The OEM alliance with Cisco has allowed us to communicate with companies around the world facing the same remote connectivity challenges. Remote access to VPNs has been around for a long time and the risks are always the same.

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What changed today? These assets are more critical for many companies and it is essential that they remain available, that they can work with more users and that they do not suffer any loss of performance. Here I will discuss some universal recommendations that should be useful for companies in the new standard.

Business continuity and technology

Many companies have business continuity plans for their data centres and sites, have already invested in WAN technologies and redundant Internet connections, and have action plans and books in case something goes wrong in their traditional networks (see ITIL, ITSCM, etc.).

Some have even implemented SD WAN technologies to provide redundant connectivity, and have optimized application routing and management for their physical location, with employees sitting at their desks, receiving phone calls and performing security work across the enterprise and secure LAN segments.

Maybe you like him, too: [Public cloud protection for remote access to workstations].

Cloud-based SaaS solutions are increasingly accepted and should be available everywhere. However, many organizations still use traditional models for certain functions and rely on critical applications and services housed in the enterprise data center.

The reality of today

Prior to the VIDOC pandemic19 , many organisations saw remote access technology as a luxury and a means of giving their travelling employees easy access to company assets, serving a small group of employees who can work remotely, simply for overtime, or at best as a way for the company to continue working with core staff for a short period of time.

But today we live in a different reality. Remote access technologies have become the way companies carry out their daily tasks. Some companies even challenge their old methods and recognize that the majority of their workforce can actually work from anywhere, and perhaps shift operating costs to a new model where they can reduce their physical property. Remote access technologies have become a real extension of the company network, giving employees access to resources essential to the business.

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This means that the negative impact on the availability of remote access technologies has shifted from inconvenience to disruption and interruption of service.

VPN Infrastructure Security

To ensure continuous availability of critical services and protection against service disruptions, we recommend a hybrid DDoS solution that combines both in-the-cloud DDoS protection and local protection to provide the best possible attack coverage with minimal delay.

On-site detection and correction prevents application and protocol specific attacks from being interrupted and automatically redirected to the cloud as attacks increase and the risk of network congestion increases. Radware provides keyless protection against SSL-based DDoS attacks by protecting user privacy, eliminating delays, and requiring access to the organization’s encryption keys.

For protection against VPN infrastructure compromises, we recommend

  • Update VPN hubs, network infrastructure devices and remote control devices with the latest software patches
  • Implement multi-factor authentication (AMF) on all VPN connections to increase security. In addition, organizations must enforce a strict password policy and mandate that prohibits the reuse of passwords for other purposes or on other websites. Cisco makes this feature available through Duo.
  • Regular resetting of administrative authorisations relating to potentially affected VPNs.
  • Implement granular access control in VPN solutions to restrict access based on user profiles.
  • Back up the client’s devices before accessing internal resources.
  • If possible, restrict IP access to VPN hubs to the geographic locations where your external staff live.

Don’t forget the ADC!

So far we have talked about protecting remote access and preventing the impact of unauthorized traffic on the VPN remote access infrastructure, but we must not forget that we are increasingly able to meet the growing demands of legitimate users. ADC technologies can be used to scale SSL VPN hubs horizontally to improve performance and remotely control more incoming access sessions.

Traffic patterns of user VPN sessions can vary greatly depending on the use of the application, large file transfers, backups, important patch downloads, etc. In addition, SSL VPN connections usually result in a single encrypted tunnel between the client software running on the user’s device and the VPN hub.

Maybe you like him, too: COWID-19 shows how important it is to have protection].

From an external perspective, the traffic generated by the connected laptop or mobile device during a Remote Access session may resemble a Layer 4 connection. This connection remains sticky and generally cannot be moved dynamically to the new hub without affecting the user experience.

The ADC can perform health checks to monitor the performance, number of connections and overall availability of SSL VPN devices and dynamically assign new incoming SSL VPN connections to the hub pool. As a result, incoming clients end up at a VPN endpoint that does not have the bandwidth and is overloaded enough to handle a new remote access connection.

It is also an external way to provide high availability to your VPN infrastructure for remote access; the best approach is to create an infrastructure that has enough hubs to handle the expected capacity and an additional backup module to support incoming connections in case another device in the pool fails (usually called N+1).

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For more information, read Radware’s Global Application and Network Security Report 2019-2020.

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http://31.220.61.170/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Linux-driven-networking-SBC-offers-GbE-2.5GbE-and-WiFi-6.jpg The Compex CP01 router card – also known as DR6018 – works with OpenWrt in the A53 Qualcomm IPQ6018 quadrant and has 2.5 GbE ports, 5x GbE with PoE, a lock for M.2 electronic key and dual-band 802.11ax (WiFi 6).

The Compex CP01 router card started scanning with the 802.11a/n/ac/ax (WiFi 6) standard, built on the Qualcomm Atheros IPQ6018 network processor. We could not find details about the IPQ6018 SoC – also known as the IPQ6018 Cypress – but it appears to be related to the Qualcomm 14nm, 1GHz, square -A53 IPQ6010 and IPQ6028 SoC, which includes the Pro 400 network platform. While other models operate at 1 GHz, the IPQ6018 can operate up to 1.8 GHz.

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Compex CP01 (AKA DR6018) and block diagram for Qualcomm Networking Pro 400 processors similar to CP01 IPQ6018
(Click on the image to enlarge).

IPQ6018 and other more powerful Qualcomm Networking Pro 400 SoC Quad-Core Cortex-A53 siblings Qualcomm Cortex-A7 IPQ4019 and IPQ4029. These two quad-core A7 processors appeared last year on the Dakota DR4019 SBC router offered by Wally’s Communications and Maxon.

The CNXSoft story that warned us about the product says that Wally’s Communications reported that the company started sampling a panel called DR6018. The report also revealed Compex’s product page and Codico’s purchase page, where the DR6018 is sold under the name Compex CP01 for 389 euros (422 dollars). We also see that 524wifi.com sells the Compex CP01 for $499.

According to CNXSoft the card works with OpenWrt 14.07 Barrier Breaker firmware and is available with the Qualcomm SDK, which comes with QCA binary drivers. The SBC 219 x 150 x 16.55 mm is equipped with 1 GB DDR3L, 256 MB NAND, 32 MB NOR and a MicroSD slot.

The Compex CP01 offers 5 GbE ports and one 2.5 GbE port. Power-over-Ethernet (24V~48V passive) is shown on the Wally page, although we imagine this refers either to the four GbE ports in the lower right corner of the detail screen on the left, or to a single GbE port next to the 2.5Gbps port.

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Compex CP01
Detailed view (click on images to enlarge)

The 802.11a/n/ac/ax dual-band 2.4 GHz/5 GHz standard offers lower latency and power consumption, better simultaneous data transmission and up to 30% higher speed than the second, faster 802.11ac radio wave (WiFi 5). Like Wave2 802.11ac, 802.11ax (WiFi 6) uses dual-band MU MIMO (Multi-Talker Multi-Talker Input, Multi-Talker Output) technology to connect WiFi to multiple devices simultaneously.

A 2.4 GHz radio supports physical transmission rates of up to 573 Mbps with an output power of 23 dBm per channel, while a 5 GHz radio can reach 1.2 Gbps with an output power of 20 dBm. The board supports Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) and EasyMesh grid routing. You will also receive a pair of double U.FL antenna connections.

The Compex CP01 has an M.2 dongle connector with PCIe 3.0 support, announced in Compex’ January announcement for 5G mobile modem support. Other features include a USB 2.0 host and USB 3.0 type C ports, a Bluetooth module port and a mini-USB port for debugging Bluetooth. The 12V connector supplies power to the board, which also supplies the UART, the LED connector, the JTAG connector, the reset button and the switches for start configuration and automatic activation.

Additional information

The Compex CP01 (DR6018) is sold for $495 per Compex and can be found at Codico for €389 ($422). It also sells for $499 at 524wifi.com. The royalty seems to be available through direct sales by Wally’s Communications at a secret price. For more detailed information please refer to the product page of Compex CP01.